|Categories:||Causes hemolysis; spore forming; motile|
|Etymology:||Genus name: Almost a Bacillus sp.|
Species epithet: from larvae.
|Significance:||American foulbrood is common in the United States, but also occurs in Sweden, Finland and other European countries. The disease can cause significant economic losses where it is prevalent.
|Alternative Species Name(s):||Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae och P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens har nu sammanförts till en art.|
|Type Strain:||ATCC 9545 = CCUG 28515.|
|Macromorphology (smell):||Produces mostly greyish-white colonies with diffuse edges. However, there are strains, which form orange pigmented colonies. Some of these (genotype ERIC 3) gives a clear hemolysis zone on blood agar.|
||Spore forming and motile rods (0.5-0.8 x 2.5-5.0 µm), which have peritrichous flagella.|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G+, but difficult to gram stain.|
|Other Enzymes:||Esculinase +, tryptophanase +, urease -|
|Biochemical Tests:||Citrate -, has mixed acid fermentation (Voges-Proskauer +)|
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:||
|Disease:||American foulbrood of honeybees.
|Hosts:||Honeybee (Apis mellifera)|
|Clinical Picture:||Abnormally high number of dead larvae (even in closed cells). Dead larvae produce a brown viscous residue in the cell, which can be pulled out with a match to a long thread. These residues contain large amounts of bacterial spores and can have a foal smell.|
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||About 75 species and subspecies have been described within the genus Paenibacillus. Many of them were earlier regarded as members of the genus Bacillus.|
|Legislation:||On suspicion of American foulbrood (AFB) in Sweden, a complaint is required to the bee inspector or the provincial government by Swedish law. AFB is included in OIE's A-list of major animal diseases.|
|Comment:||Compare Melisococcus plutonius, which causes European foulbrood.|
|Reference(s):||No. 97, 128, 137|
|Link:||Amerikansk yngelröta - biologi, diagnos och bekämpning|
|The revised taxonomy of the mollicutes|
The revised taxonomy of mollicutes (mycoplasmas) has now been introduced on VetBact, which means that many of the species have been given new genus names or moved to another higher taxon.Published 2021-11-25. Read more...