|Categories:||Zoonotic; causes hemolysis|
|Etymology:||Genus name: erysipelas thread.|
Species epithet: of red disease.
|Type Strain:||ATCC 19414 = CCUG 221 = NCTC 8163.|
||Small transparent nonpigmented colonies (0.2-1 mm in diameter) with a narrow zone of α-hemolysis on blood agar.|
|Micromorphology:||Nonmotile and short rods (0.5 x 1.5-3.0 µm) with rounded ends, which may also grow as long filaments (about 60 µm in length).|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G+|
|Other Enzymes:||Hippuricase +, tryptophanase -, urease -.|
|Biochemical Tests:||Citrate -, Voges-Proskauer -.|
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:||
|Disease:||Swine erysipelas (diamond skin disease), erysipeloid (humans). Note that erysipelas in humans is caused by Streptococcus spp.|
|Hosts:||Pig, poultry, sheep, horse, cattle, fish, seafood, humans etc.|
|Clinical Picture:||Pigs Acute and subacute form: septicaemia, fever, arthritis,.
Chronic form: arthritis, endocarditis
Poultry: increased herd mortality, decreased egg production and arthritis.
Humans: Red rhomboidal patches on the skin.
|Diagnostics:||Culture after enrichment. Confirmation by MALDI-TOF or biochemical tests.|
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||Five species have been described within the genus Erysipelothrix. E. rhusiopathiae can be confused with Erysipelothrix tonsillarum and their 16S rRNA sequences are almost identical (see the phylogenetic tree in Fig. 43:4).|
|Comment:||Type species for the genus. Is zoonotic.|
|Reference(s):||No. 19, 114, 117|
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